Heart Disease

Coronary heart disease refers to the failure of the coronary circulation to supply adequate circulation to cardiac muscle and surrounding tissue. Coronary heart disease is most commonly equated with Coronary artery disease although coronary heart disease can be due to other causes, such as coronary vasospasm.


Cardiomyopathy literally means "heart muscle disease" (myo=muscle, pathy=disease) It is the deterioration of the function of the myocardium (i.e., the heart muscle) for any reason. People with Cardiomyopathy are often at risk of arrhythmia and/or sudden cardiac death.

Types of Cardiomyopathy:

Extrinsic Cardiomyopathy - Cardiomyopathy where the primary pathology is outside the myocardium itself. Most Cardiomyopathy is extrinsic, because by far the most common cause of a Cardiomyopathy is ischemia. The World Health Organization calls this specific Cardiomyopathy: [citation needed]

  • Alcoholic Cardiomyopathy
  • Coronary artery disease
  • Congenital heart disease
  • Nutritional diseases affecting the heart
  • Ischemic (or ischemic) Cardiomyopathy
  • Hypertensive Cardiomyopathy
  • Valvular Cardiomyopathy - see also Valvular heart disease below
  • Inflammatory Cardiomyopathy - see also Inflammatory heart disease
  • Cardiomyopathy secondary to a systemic metabolic disease
  • Myocardiodystrophy
  • Intrinsic Cardiomyopathy - weakness in the muscle of the heart that is not due to an identifiable external cause..
  • Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM) - most common form, and one of the leading indications for heart transplantation. In DCM the heart (especially the left ventricle) is enlarged and the pumping function is diminished.
  • Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM or HOCM) - genetic disorder caused by various mutations in genes encoding sarcomeric proteins. In HCM the heart muscle is thickened, which can obstruct blood flow and prevent the heart from functioning properly.
  • Arrhythmogenic right ventricular Cardiomyopathy (ARVC) - arises from an electrical disturbance of the heart in which heart muscle is replaced by fibrous scar tissue. The right ventricle is generally most affected.
  • Restrictive Cardiomyopathy (RCM) - least common Cardiomyopathy. The walls of the ventricles are stiff, but may not be thickened, and resist the normal filling of the heart with blood.
  • Non compaction Cardiomyopathy - the left ventricle wall has failed to properly grow from birth and such has a spongy appearance when viewed during an echocardiogram.

Cardiovascular Disease:

Cardiovascular disease is any of a number of specific diseases that affect the heart itself and/or the blood vessel system, especially the veins and arteries leading to and from the heart. Research on disease dimorphism suggests that women who suffer with cardiovascular disease usually suffer from forms that affect the blood vessels while men usually suffer from forms that affect the heart muscle itself. Known or associated causes of cardiovascular disease include diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperhomocysteinemia and hypercholesterolemia.

Ischemic Deart Disease

Ischemic heart disease - another disease of the heart itself, characterized by reduced blood supply to the cardiac muscles i.e. myocardium.

Heart Failure

Heart failure, also called congestive heart failure (or CHF), and congestive cardiac failure (CCF), is a condition that can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the heart to fill with or pump a sufficient amount of blood throughout the body. Therefore lead to the heart and body's failure.

Hypertensive Heart Disease

Hypertensive heart disease is heart disease caused by high blood pressure, especially localized high blood pressure. Conditions that can be caused by hypertensive heart disease include:

  • Left ventricular hypertrophy
  • Coronary heart disease
  • Congestive) heart failure
  • Hypertensive Cardiomyopathy
  • Cardiac arrhythmias

Inflammatory heart disease involves inflammation of the heart muscle and/or the tissue surrounding it.

  • Endocarditis - inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium. The                    
  • The most common structures involved are the heart valves.
  • Inflammatory cardiomegaly
  • Myocarditis - inflammation of the myocardium, the muscular part of the heart.

Valvular Heart Disease- Valvular heart disease is a disease process that affects one or more valves of the heart. There are four major heart valve which may be affected by valvular heart disease, including the tricuspid and aortic valves in the right side of the heart, as well as the mitral and aortic valves in the left side of the heart.

Nutrition There is six major classes of nutrients: carbohydrates, fats, minerals, protein, vitamins, and water. These nutrient classes can be categorized as either macronutrients (needed in relatively large amounts) or micronutrients (needed in smaller quantities). The macronutrients include carbohydrates (including fiber), fats, protein, and water. The micronutrients are minerals and vitamins. The macronutrients (excluding fiber and water) provide structural material and energy. Some of the structural material can be used to generate energy internally, and in either case it is measured in Joules or kilocalories.

Molecules of carbohydrates and fats consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. Carbohydrates range from simple monosaccharide (glucose, fructose, galactose) to complex polysaccharides (starch). Fats are triglycerides, made of assorted fatty acid monomers bound to glycerol backbone. Some fatty acids, but not all, are essential in the diet: they cannot be synthesized in the body. Protein molecules contain nitrogen atoms in addition to carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. The fundamental components of protein are nitrogen-containing amino acids, some of which are essential in the sense that humans cannot make them internally. Some of the amino acids can be converted (with the expenditure of energy) to glucose and can be used for energy production just as ordinary glucose in a process known as gluconeogenesis. By breaking down existing protein, some glucose can be produced internally; the remaining amino acids are discarded, primarily as urea in urine. This occurs normally only during prolonged starvation. Other micronutrients include antioxidants and phytochemicals, which are said to influence (or protect) some body systems. Their necessity is not as well established as in the case of, for instance,vitamins.

Most foods contain a mix of some or the entire nutrient together with other substances, such as toxins of various sorts. Some nutrients can be stored internally (e.g., the fat soluble vitamins), while others are required more or less continuously. Poor health can be caused by a lack of required nutrients or, in extreme cases, too much required nutrient. For example, both salt and water (both absolutely required) will cause illness or even death in excessive amounts.

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